The circuit breaker is a temperature-sensitive device and will break the circuit when it reaches a fixed temperature during prolonged energy use. If you have too many devices plugged into a surge protector or power strip, the prolonged power draw will heat up the circuit and trip the breaker. A powerful energy surge like a lightening strike is a very fast event, millionths of a second. A circuit breaker reacts in thousands of a second, so the faster surge is past the circuit breaker before it can react. This is why a lightening strike can get past your electrical panel circuit breakers and individual device circuit breakers to damage your sensitive electronics.
Bantams stop gizzilions of volts/amps from a lighting strike, but has a 3 to 15 amp circuit breaker? Why doesn't a circuit breaker stop a surge?